Friday, March 13, 2020

Salary Negotiation Skills for Women Close the Pay Gap! Part 2

Salary Negotiation Skills for Women Close the Pay Gap! Part 2 Salary Negotiation Skills for Women: Close the Pay Gap! Part 2 Last week, I wrote about the importance of salary negotiation skills for women in my article, Salary Negotiation for Women. In it, I drew from information presented in a webinar by Professor Deborah Ellis that emphasized how salary negotiation skills can help close the gender pay gap. I promised last week to share more about specific salary negotiation skills. Following are some of the issues you might run into and how salary negotiation skills can help you address them. What if you’re asked about your prior salary or salary expectations at any point in your job search? Some employers try to get you to state a number before they do, which is in no way a good thing for you. A low number sets you up to be underpaid by some organizations, and a high number sets you up to be eliminated from consideration. Knowing how to answer the salary expectation question is hugely important for women so that they get paid fairly, not based on a previously too-low salary. Here’s how Professor Ellis recommends responding if you’re asked about your salary expectations or previous salary: If you’re in California, Massachusetts, Delaware, or Oregon, or in the cities of New York City and Philadelphia, you can explain that there are laws stating you are not required to answer it. These laws are a great step toward ending pay discrimination. For instance, say, â€Å"I’m sure that if you decide I’m the best candidate for the job, we can agree on an appropriate salary for the position.† Or ask them â€Å"What is the range that you’re thinking of for the position?† Show them you’ve done your research. Say, â€Å"I’ve done some research and understand that the range for this position is $X to $Y. I trust you will offer a fair salary based on industry standards.† If you must state a number, state a range. Or ask for a number at the top of the range you’ve researched, and explain you’re hoping for that salary but are willing to negotiate. Once you get an offer, here are Professor Ellis’s tips on how to negotiate effectively: Do not initiate a salary negotiation conversation before you get a job offer. Do not ask in your initial phone interview about salary, benefits, or working from home. Wait until you’ve been offered a position before you bring up any of these issues. Otherwise you will be seen as immature at best, and greedy at worst. You won’t get a second interview. Be prepared. Before you step into a negotiation, calculate your target, your ask, and your bottom line. Gather as many objective facts as possible, including the salaries of others. There are two main ways to do your research: Surf the web. Use salary.com, glassdoor.com, and industry-specific websites. Ask your networks (including LinkedIn!). If you’re a woman, ask your colleagues what a man would ask to be paid for this job. If you want to work from home, find out ahead of time whether other people in similar positions have worked from home. Ask for up to 20% over your target. And don’t accept anything below your bottom line. Negotiate the total package just salary–keep salary and benefits, title, scope of responsibility, travel, flexibility, and resources to accomplish your job on the table. Asking for more than one thing allows you to trade off. Keep in mind that some benefits might be non-negotiable, and do not push on those. Note: If you’re asking for multiple things, let the employer know at the beginning of the conversation- and ask them in what order they would like to address those things. Understand and leverage the concept of anchoring. Here’s how anchoring works: The first number anyone says is the number that everyone will remember. So don’t say a low number first or you’ll be stuck with a low number! Start with a high number and then anything else will sound smaller. If you have another offer, that’s a great benchmark and bargaining point. Always be conversational and pleasant while you’re advising a potential employer of other offers! Identify employer’s interests. For more good advice on this strategy, read Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In, by Roger Fisher, William Ury, and Bruce Patton. Ask for time to consider an offer if you need it. If a company wants you, they’ll be willing to wait- whether that’s overnight or even a week or two, depending on the situation. Practice with peers or a professional interview coach- and then go negotiate! How can I learn more about salary negotiation and salary negotiation for women? Here are some great resources suggested by Professor Ellis: AAUW, American Association of University Women Babcock Laschever, Ask For It: How Women Can Use the Power of Negotiation to Get What They Really Want (2009) Babcock Laschever, Women Don’t Ask: The High Cost of Avoiding Negotiation- and Positive Strategies for Change (2007) Roger Fisher, William Ury, Bruce Patton, Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In (1991) If you are a woman (or a man) with an upcoming interview, try using some of these salary negotiation skills, strategies and tactics. I’d love to hear the results!

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

History Discussion Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 9

History Discussion - Research Paper Example 90). This made President Jackson make a lot of mistakes that caused United States great damage both economically and politically. During his tenure some of the United States countries even tried to secede from the union. Jackson signing of tariff into law in 1882, some countries such as South Carolina felt ignored the move an aspect that made President Jackson administration to almost make use military in making sure that South Carolina paid the tariff (Brinkley, & Dyer 2004, p. 93). The administration was also involved with different cases of corruption. The administration was unable to fight cases of corruption that faced the government especially the allegations that were directed towards some of the cabinet officials. This made the fight be tough to deal with as the officials still held their positions in the government thereby covering up any attempt to uncover their actions. This led to starting of a campaign that was aimed at eliminating all officials that had corruption records but this move was unsuccessful (Brinkley, & Dyer 2004, p.

Monday, February 10, 2020

Nature of Justice in the Soul and State Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Nature of Justice in the Soul and State - Essay Example On a personal view, the definition of justice can be logical based on the fact that the three components of the soul can greatly affect the concept of justice. There is only one question in terms of the fact that reason, spirit and appetite can be considered as subjective or personal. This had been answered in the view that the soul is the microcosm of the state. Due to the fact that soul is hard to analyze, the corresponding events in the state can be studied to be able to understand the soul (Republic 436b8–9). With this analogy, it had been considered that by managing the state well, the soul can achieve happiness. For example, the part of the soul, reason is mainly interested in knowledge. In the state, reason corresponds to philosophers who have the virtue of wisdom. Honor is the main interest of the spirit and is possessed by the warriors who have the virtue of courage. Desire, which is the third component of the soul, can be equated to the commoners since the main inter est is to achieve pleasures. They have the virtue of temperance (Republic 415a-433e). Looking through the different virtues, justice cannot be found. The main view of Plato is that justice can be found in all of the classes in the society, although each one may have different perception of the concept. In the dialogue, different individuals gave their opinions which all had logical points. Cephalus said that justice is about telling the truth and repaying debts, but Socrates pointed out that it can be true but not at all times or situations (Republic 331c). Polemarchus on the other had said that justice is â€Å"giving to each what is owed† but Socrates pointed out that this can alienate the people who had done crimes which can lead to more crimes or wrong doings (Republic 335d). Every speaker in the dialogue had a point specifically Socrates. The other speakers were concerned about the application of the definition of justice to their own field but Socrates was able to prese nt the different sides on a general term. The bottom line in the view of justice, based on the reading then, is that justice does not consider sides, perspectives, virtues, or other elements in the social structure that people deemed important. The main reason for this is impartiality. Plato is right soul and state are the main ground where the rules of justice will be applied. In this case, it is subjective to begin with. There is never an absolute right or an absolute wrong. The view that Plato perceived justice to be in all the classes and all the components of the soul is his own version of impartiality. No matter how he deemed that the philosophers’ roles in the society are the most important in all classes, he still believed that justice can be achieved by the commoners. 2. Characteristics of a Good Citizen and the Possibility of Utopian State There are different definitions of the term citizen depending on the philosophers or the context. Based on Plato’s view i n the Republic, a good citizen participates and contributes to the achievement of the goals of the state. He expressed in his work that the people who participates in governance are the citizen. For the Utopian society, he citizens are the philosophers, while the others are the people being led and ruled over. Plato’s philosophy on good citizen and even the existence of people revolve around the political concepts (Republic 415a-433e). Thoreau described good citizens as active people with goals

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Identify, discuss and analyse the key features and characteristics of at least 3 different examples of script writing Essay Example for Free

Identify, discuss and analyse the key features and characteristics of at least 3 different examples of script writing Essay In this essay I will be taking different plays and analysing their features and characteristics within them. I will be analysing ‘Beautiful Burnout’ performed by Frantic Assembly, ‘Lysistrata, or Loose Strife’ by David Stuttard, and ‘Twelfth Night, Or What You Will’ by William Shakespeare. Within these plays I will be looking at the style of writing it is, (eg – formal, informal, old English), the genre (eg – comedy, tragedy) and the themes. In the play ‘Beautiful Burnout’ is written in verses, like a poem. It doesn’t follow a pattern and doesn’t rhyme like a poem, but reads like a poem would. The way the setting at the beginning of each scene is described is also in the same way as the actual lines. The language is fairly informal as it includes Scottish words written phonetically such as â€Å"nae mare nae less† meaning â€Å"no more no less†, which helps the actors/actresses pronounce the words in a Scottish accent effectively. It also uses colloquial language to Glasgow (Scotland in general) the place where the play is set such as â€Å"lassies† and â€Å"aye† to make the setting and the characters both realistic when compared to each other. In comparison to this, ‘Lysistrata, Or Loose Strife’ is not written in verses. This play includes monologues that are made into lines depending on when the actor/actress would pause. In ‘Lysistrata, Or Loose Strife’, the language is mainly informal, similarly to ‘Beautiful Burnout’, but for the purpose to make the play humorous. The way sex throughout the play is portrayed is informal such as in the beginning scene where everything Lucy is saying is being turned into innuendos by Nikki to make the audience laugh, such as â€Å"They’re Greeks, everything they do, they do late. And everything takes so long – starting, finishing, coming, g†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"Sometimes I wish my husband was a bit more like that! † and â€Å"is it something big? † â€Å"Yes, very big† â€Å"And hard? † â€Å"Yes, very hard† â€Å"And juicy? † â€Å"Very very juicy, yes†. Neither of the other plays use informal language for humour, if they do use it, it is to create realistic and believable characters and settings. In ‘Twelfth Night, Or What You Will’, uses the old English language as that was when the play was written. This can make it harder to understand as a modern audience but can still get the plot and message across to the audience on stage. The lines are set up in verses, like ‘Beautiful Burnout’ and is written formally for the time it was written. Within the play sometimes the monologues can have a rhyming cuplet, as Shakespeare also wrote poetry as well as plays. Unlike ‘Beautiful Burnout’, none of the words are written phonetically and again, unlike ‘Beautiful Burnout’ and ‘Lysistrata, Or Loose Strife’, it written formally for its time. All of these plays have genres which all differ dramatically. ‘Beautiful Burnout’ is a physical theatre play, which contrasts to both of the other plays. ‘Lysistrata, Or Loose Strife’ is a comedy and contemporary play, which again contrasts the other two plays. ‘Twelfth Night, Or What You Will’ is a tragedy and a Shakespearian play, which like the other plays, contrasts with both of the plays as well. The only similarity is through comedy and tragedy, which both are based on emotions, comedy being laughter/happiness, and tragedy being sadness/upset. This leaves physical theatre completely standing out on its own, being completely different with no reachable comparisons to the other genres. ‘Twelfth Night, Or What You Will’ can be seen as a comedy is some cases, as the subplot is more comical than tragic, but the main plot line is labelled as a tragedy. The jokes made in ‘Lysistrata, Or Loose Strife’ completely differ to the ones made in ‘Twelfth Night, Or What You Will’, as they are from different time periods when comedy changed within them. The themes within the plays largely differ as well. With ‘Beautiful Burnout’, the major running theme is boxing, as that is what the story is based on. Power is also a running theme throughout the play with the power Bobby thinks he has over the other characters and uses it to improve their efforts. This is shown when the characters refer to Bobby as â€Å"Mr Burgess† and not â€Å"Bobby† and in Scene 13 when Bobby is talking to Cameron and it’s very clear by what Cameron says that he is doing what Bobby is telling him to even though he is not pleases about it. â€Å"Things I give up for this. Shoplifting. Borrowing cars. Smoking. Tobacco and weed. Girlfriends. I still dae shagging†¦ But only on Friday and Saturday. I jest cannae dae the commitment thing wi lassies. What else†¦ Crisps. Spare time. Spare time†¦Whit’s that? †. In ‘Lysistrata, Or Loose Strife’, the theme of sex becomes obvious at the very beginning of the play with the character of Nikki making it completely unmissable. The way she links everything back to sex makes this a running theme that is clearly important to the plot of the play. Power is also a big theme in ‘Lysistrata, Or Loose Strife’ as it is what the women gain when they refuse to have sex with their husbands and in contrast, what the husbands lose when not making peace and stopping the war. In ‘Twelfth Night, Or What You Will’ there are several themes, such as love is a cause of suffering. Many of the characters seem to view love as a kind of curse, a feeling that attacks its victims suddenly and disruptively. Various characters claim to suffer painfully from being in love, or, rather, from the emotions linked with one-sided love. At one point, Orsino represents love unhappily as an â€Å"appetite† that he wants to satisfy and can’t. At another point, he calls his desires â€Å"fell and cruel hounds†. Olivia more bluntly describes love as a â€Å"plague† from which she suffers terribly. Another theme is the uncertainty of gender. ‘Twelfth Night, Or What You Will’ is one of Shakespeare’s ‘transvestite comedies’, in which a female character disguises herself as a man. This situation creates a ‘sexual mess’ as Viola falls in love with Orsino but can’t tell him because he thinks she is a man, while Olivia, who Orsino loves, falls for Viola in her disguise as Cesario. There is a clear homoerotic subtext, Olivia is in love with a woman, even if she thinks he is a man, and Orsino often remarks on Cesario’s beauty, suggesting that he is attracted to Viola even before her male disguise is removed. With ‘Beautiful Burnout’ and ‘Lysistrata, Or Loose Strife’ the theme of power is common in both plays but is shown in different ways. ‘Twelfth Night, Or What You Will’ has completely different themes to do with issues that were not as forthright as they are now in modern day society, such as homosexuality and gender uncertainty. Throughout this essay, it is clear that there are many similarities and differences, some obvious, some hidden, within the plays. However, not all the plays included something that every play had, such as ‘Beautiful Burnout’ and ‘Lysistrata, Or Loose Strife’ being informal, and ‘Twelfth Night, Or What You Will’ being formal, and the style of language used. It’s also obvious that with themes and genres, there can be similarities but they are generalised and don’t have specific details that are the exact same. It seems that ‘Beautiful Burnout’ and ‘Lysistrata, Or Loose Strife’ are quite similar compared to ‘Twelfth Night, Or What You Will’ which seems ti be completely different to the other plays and contrasts with the style of writing, themes and genres of both of the other plays.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Cyber Squatting and Domain Speculation †A Global perspective :: Argumentative Persuasive Internet Essays

Cyber Squatting and Domain Speculation – A Global perspective Introduction and definitions ‘Cyber squatting’ has become an increasing source of annoyance and problem in the internet world. Apart from some of the other issues such as internet security, hacking and frauds, which usually occur after going online, ‘Cyber Squatting’ is the first major problem faced by any company well before they even setup an internet web site. Before moving on to the various issues, it is often unclear of what ‘Cyber Squatting’ actually is. Simply put, cyber squatting means the registration of a domain name in violation of a trademark or business name or other intellectual property of its owners. This includes the registration of a name deceptively similar to such business name or trademark. Usually, domain squatters register these domains before the company does and offer these domain names to such business houses at a premium 1. U.S. Eastern District of Pennsylvania, Judge Berle M. Schiller defined cyber-squatting or cyber-piracy as the "deliberate, bad-faith, and abusive registration of Internet domain names in violation of the rights of trademark owners.† 2. Using this definition put forward by Judge Berle some of the major cyber squatting problems, that directly violate the trademark of corporation, has been solved. But another increasing problem is the issue of Domain Speculation. Another practice that sometimes, and misleadingly, is called cyber-squatting is domain speculation: the registering of domain names based not on recognized brands but on generic terms (e.g. crocodile.com, homes-for-sale.com, cheapflowers.com). Speculators register generic domain names in the hope that a company will wish to buy a particular name for its own commercial use2. Current problems Going back to the problem of cyber squatting we can refer to a much earlier case in China. This was the time when Chinese corporations did not enjoy the protection of the law against cyber squatters. In the past few years, many cyber squatters registered the names of many famous Chinese companies in domain registrars in countries such as the United States. As a result, these Chinese companies were forced to pay large sums to 'reclaim' their domain names. For example, cyber squatters registered the domain name 'kelon.com'. The Chinese company that owned the trademark 'KELON' paid RMB1 million to reclaim the domain name from the cyber squatter3 In this case we can see that the only way Chinese companies could resolve the issue was to either pay large sums of money to the domain squatter or just get another domain.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Driving Homework

Laws Street racing is an illegal activity because it is dangerous and can cause motor vehicle collisions, injuries, and even fatalities of drivers. Street racing is a form of motor racing occurring on public roads, and can either be very well coordinated and planned by drivers in order to avoid authorities or a spontaneous decision. Drivers who decided to street race are putting not only themselves, put also other drivers, as well as pedestrians, in danger.This danger has been demonstrated many times in Canada, and has led to the creation of laws to protect our citizens. For example, in 2006, two men were racing in a Toronto public street, hitting speeds of up to 140 kilometers per hour in an area with a speed limit of 50 kilometers per hour. The two drivers, while racing, struck and killed a taxi cab driver. For this reason, Ontario has laws to protect everyone from the dangers of street racing. Drivers who are involved in street racing face multiple actions from the government.Firs tly, if a street racer is arrested on reasonable grounds, they face an immediate seven day license suspensions, and the drivers vehicle is impounded for seven days. If the driver is convicted in court, they can face multiple penalties. Firstly, the driver faces fines between $2,000 and $10,000, gains 6 demerit points, gets a license suspension of up to two years, and faces a maximum of 6 months in Jail. The driver may also receive a driver license suspension of up to 10 years if the driver is convicted for a second time within 10 years.The use of connected nitrous oxide systems, which enhances acceleration capacities of vehicles, while driving on a highway is also prohibited. Overall, street racing is extremely dangerous. The risk of a serious injury is almost five times greater for vehicles crashing at 50 kilometers per hour or more above the posted speed limit on a highway of 100 kilometers per hour. The risk is even greater on roads with lower speed limits. These laws imposed by the government help greatly to keep our roads safe for everyone. 2.Impaired Driving Impaired driving means driving is a dangerous act characterized by a driver's abilities being compromised by alcohol or drugs. Even one drink can reduce one's ability to concentrate while driving and reduce reaction time to sudden changes. Drinking also causes blurry vision, also compromising driving abilities. The more alcohol, the more dangerous it I to drive. Drugs that affect the brain also affect driving abilities. This includes both certain prescription and over the counter drugs, as well as illegal drugs.There are approximately 13,000 drinking and driving convictions recorded annually in Ontario. Over the past decade, more than 2,000 lives have been lost, and 50,000 people have been injured because of collisions as a result of drunk driving. Impaired driving is a serious crime under the Criminal Code of Canada, and has serious penalties. The consequences for driving with a 0. 05 to 0. 08 blood alcohol concentration level involves, if it is a first time offense, a 3 day license suspension, and a $150 fine. If a driver has a blood alcohol level of over 0. 8 or refuses a take a breath test to detect blood alcohol level, if it is a first time offense, the driver receives a 90 day license suspension, a 7 day vehicle impoundments, a $1 50 fine, must participate in a mandatory alcohol education and treatment program, and must participate in the ignition interlock program. This program is an in-car alcohol reheat screening device that prevents a vehicle from starting if it detects a blood alcohol concentration over 0. 02. In addition, if the driver is convicted of an impaired driving offence under the criminal code of Canada, they will receive a $1000 fine, and a license suspension of 1 year.After the 2nd, 3rd, and all subsequent offenses of impaired driving, consequences are more severe, and can even result in Jail time. Even if you are simply sitting behind the wheel, and not driving the car, you can still be charged with impaired driving. Overall, eliminate the risks of impaired driving. If you are planning on drinking, prepare alternate routes of travel. Impaired driving is not worth the risks it causes to the safety of the driver, passengers, and others on the road. 3. Assignment: Who Causes Collisions?Inexperience can cause collisions because if a driver does not know how to react to a situation, an accident may occur. So a stunt driver who has built their whole life around driving has more experience behind the wheel and is more comfortable with driving compared to someone like myself who has Just begun driving this year does not fully understand driving a car. For example, if one is driving on an icy road, and the car starts to skid and spin, an inexperienced driver might try to steer out of the way immediately.However, an experienced driver would know that you must press on the brakes hard when you are facing the direction you want to go to stop s pinning. A possible way to avoid accidents related to inexperience practice in a safe environment so new drivers have some experience driving a motor vehicle. However, it is also important to learn about what to do in emergencies. Inattention can cause collisions if drivers are not paying attention to the road in front f them. For example, testing instead of looking at the road can mean that you are not paying attention to the most important task.This can mean that you do not notice spontaneous things that happen or what your car is doing. For example, if one is testing on a highway, they may not notice that their car is drifting into the lane of opposing traffic. This could cause a head on collision with another care, which is very dangerous and highly deadly. This kind of collision can cause injuries and fatalities. A solution is to always pay attention to the road, not even looking away for a few seconds. As well, it is important to keep attentive when talking to passengers in a car or listening to the radio.Inconsideration can cause a collision if a person is not being considerate to other drivers' needs. For example, if you cut off another driver with your own car by going into their lane, this could cause them to have to break, and possibly run into you. A solution to this could be to be considerate of other drivers, and not do things that you would not want them to do to you. You should always not assume that someone else will conform to you. Instead, always make sure that you are being safe while driving. Impatience can cause collisions if a driver is very impatient.An example of this is if a driver approaches a traffic light, and the light begins to change to yellow as the driver is still far enough away to brake safely. However, the impatient driver, instead of slowing and stopping, speeds through the lights to get through the yellow light quickly. However, this could cause a collision in the intersection if another car is coming from the other direc tion. A solution is for drivers to understand that waiting a minute for the traffic light to change instead of rushing through a yellow traffic light s better than being in an accident that could possibly cause serious injuries or deaths.Ignorance can cause collisions if a driver is ignorant of the rules of the road, making it dangerous for other drivers. For example, if a driver does not use their turning signals when they turn, this can cause serious collisions. If you do not use your turning signals, this may cause other drivers to not know that you are turning. To other drivers, this could look like you are turning out of nowhere, which could cause them to rear end you, creating a collision. A solution is to turn on your signals approximately 50 meters before you want to make your turn.If you realize you need to turn as you are very close to or already in the intersection, instead of randomly turning without your signals, it is best to instead make a turn at the next intersectio n instead of risking a collision. Inability Irresponsibility can cause collisions being irresponsible could mean that you don't maintain your vehicle properly, and this could cause a critical failure in the vehicle such as inability to brake, therefore your power steering pump could break in the idle of a turn and cause you to lose control.In order to avoid collisions, it is important to be responsible in maintaining your vehicle, including going in for regular checks. This ensures that your are keeping yourself and other drivers safe. Impairment – drunk driving is the most well known, but driving while under the influence of other substances such as ganja (pot) or cocaine can impair your ability to react correctly and in a timely manner. Improper seeing habits – if you can't see the road ahead of you, how do you expect to stay on the road?

Monday, January 6, 2020

Migration and the UK - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1936 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Law Essay Type Review Level High school Tags: Immigration Essay Migration Essay Did you like this example? CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Canada introduced the first points system in the late 1960s. This approach was subsequently adopted by Australia in 1989, New Zealand in 1991, the Czech Republic in 2003, Singapore in 2004, Hong Kong in 2006, Denmark in 2007 and the United Kingdom in 2008. Even the European Union has tentatively sought to push a à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"blueà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ card proposal designed to offer freedom of movement throughout the EU to the most highly skilled non-EU workers. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Migration and the UK" essay for you Create order However, as the proposal stands it would not offer permanent residency and is only valid for two years, albeit on a renewable basis. EU member states are now in the process of adopting the new rules although doubts remain about whether it will generate much take-up. Governments have found the pointà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s system approach attractive for a number of reasons: Economic, Fiscal and Political. In March 2006, the Home Office presented Command Paper 6741 to Parliament entitled A Points-Based System: Making Migration Work for Britain. Within this document lie the structure of the PBS, how it differs from previous immigration policies, and thorough explanations of its different components. To fully understand how and why the PBS came into existence, it is essential to examine, analyse and ultimately criticize this document. By comprehending the PBSÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€¦Ã‚ ¸s stated purpose and desired outcome alongside its deficiencies and expected and unexpected outcomes, it will be possible to determine where it truly fits into British immigration policy. The Home Office introduced the new point based system for immigration. The system awards points to workers from outside the European Area (EEA) for skills that reflect experience, age etc. In terms of the education sector, there are two main aims to this legislation: To reduce the number of illegal students and educational establishments To keep a tight rein on who can enter the country and when. PURPOSE OF THE PBS Home Secretary Charles Clarke (6) stated that à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“achieving greater public confidence in the immigration system remains one of my top priorities as Home Secretaryà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (2006). (7) As à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“the most significant change to managed migration in the last 40 yearsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (2006), the PBSÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€¦Ã‚ ¸s purpose is to clearly designate who is allowed into the UK and on what pretext. As part of a five-year strategy to overhaul the British asylum and immigration system (8), the PBS replaced a previously complex and subjective system with a standardized process that would, in theory, be easier both for applicants as for the deciding government. Part of the belief behind the PBS is that migration would be managed; it will also secure borders and prevent abuses to the system, it will be economically and culturally beneficial to UK. Some of the benefits of migration listed include the disproportionate contributi on of migrants to the British economy (in 2001 they contributed 10%GDP while composing only 8% of those employed), its role in filling in gaps in the labour market, the secondary effects of increases in investment, innovation and entrepreneurship, and its social and cultural contribution to modern British society (Cm 6741, 2006: 1, 5). In the introduction to the Points-Based System, three benefits were stated as the desired outcomes of the new system: better identification and attraction of migrants with the most to contribute to the UK; an efficient, transparent and objective application process and a reduced scope for abuse of the system (Cm 6741, 2006:1, 9). Together with these contributions was the expectation that the modifications would create a more streamlined process that would be à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“simpler to understand and the rules for entry clearer and more consistently appliedà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (2006:1). This, in turn, would allow the British public to more clearly und erstand who is allowed in and why. The accomplishment of these goals would be achieved through a five Tier framework that International Migration In 2013 around 526,000 people migrated to the UK and 314,000 migrated from the UK. Net migration into the UK was 212,000, which was higher than 2012.The annual change was not statistically significant. Estimate so f net migrations in the period 2001 to 2011 have been revised to reflect the results of the 2011 Census. The ONS is notable to separately revise estimates of immigration and emigration in the same way. The revised estimates are shown alongside the original estimates in the table. In 2012 London was the destination for 26% of all long term migrants to the UK. Northern Ireland was the only UK region that did not experience net inward migration of international migrants in 2012. In 2013, 201,000 citizens of EU28 countries migrated to the UK 38%of the total number of immigrants. In the same year 78,000 citizens of EU 28 countries migrated from the UK. Emigration from the UK total led 314,000, of which134, 000 were British citizens. To qualify in each Tier, applicants must have sufficient points according to the criteria of the scheme. The government vigorously promoted the transparency, objectivity, and flexibility of the PBS. However, in significant respects, the PBS lacks these characteristics, at least so far as applicants are concerned. The Select Committee on Home Affairs reported on the PBS in July 2009 (Managing Migration: The Points Based System, Thirteenth Report of Session 2008à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å"09 HC 217à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å"I). Its overall conclusion was (p. 309) that, while the scheme as a whole, received a à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"cautious welcomeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, several key structures required further consideration. Since then, however, the PBS has become less flexible, more complex and restrictive, and there are reports of considerable delays in dealing with in-country applications (Home Affairs Committee (2013) The Work of the UK Border Agency (Januaryà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å"March 2013) Eighth Report of Ses sion 2013à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å"14, p. 62). Any applicant under the PBS pays a substantial fee to have one shot at getting a complex application right. There were problems with the quality of decision-making from the outset (see Wray 2009:239). A 2010 report by the UK Council for International Student Affairs found that 10 per cent of student applicants believed that their first application had been unreasonably refused, affecting perceptions of the UK as a welcoming destination (UKCISA (2010) Studentsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ Experiences of Extending their Visas in the UK under Tier 4). The Chief Inspectorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s inspection of Tier 2 applications in 2010 found much to commend in staff practice and attitudes but also an over-complex system and inconsistencies in practice between posts (Chief Inspector UK Border Agency (2010) A Thematic Inspection of the Points-Based System: Tier 2 (Skilled Workers) Julyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å"August 2010). Recent reports have been more positive but sti ll found problems with the quality of service in student applications (Independent Chief Inspector of Borders and Immigration (2012) An Inspection of Tier 4 of the Points-Based System (Students) Aprilà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å"July 2012). A 2011 survey by UKCISA found improvements but also that poor information, the pace of change, refusal due to minor errors, the cost of the application process, and the reintroduction of judgments on English language proficiency caused problems for a significant number of applicants (UKCISA (2011) The UKCISA Tier 4 Student Survey 2011). The Migration Advisory Committee (MAC) has played an extensive role in the development of the PBS. It is an independent, advisory, non-statutory committee established by the government in 2007 and is central to government claims that the PBS is determined by objectively assessed criteria. According to its terms of reference, it will provide independent and evidence-based advice to Government on specific sectors and occupa tions in the labour market where shortages exist which can sensibly be filled by migrationThe government may, from time to time, ask the MAC to advise on other matters relating to migration. The MAC is independent of government. It has several functions but the most significant are to identify which jobs come within the description of graduate-level employment for the purposes of Tier 2 and to review the list of shortage occupations. It has also, at the request of government, carried out other tasks including, most recently, assessing the impact of closing the Seasonal Agricultural Workers and Sectors Based Schemes although, as discussed in what follows, the government does not always follow their recommendations. Criteria for Points The Migration Advisory Committee (MAC) recommended changes 09/09 implemented which took effect from 6th April, 2010. Criteria for Points What UKBA awards points for Points awarded: [1] Criteria for Points What UKBA awards points for Points awarded Sponsorship Up to 50 points If the job is on the shortage occupations list Transitional arrangements If the job meets the resident labour market test Switching from a post-study category Extension 50 50 30 30 30 Qualifications Up to 15 points available PhD or Masterà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s degree and above Bachelorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s degree or above GCE A-level or equivalent or above None, or below GCE A-level 15 10 5 0 Prospective earnings Up to 25 points available  £32,000+  £28,000- £31,999.00  £24,000- £27,999.99  £20,000-23,999.99 Under  £20,000 25 20 15 10 0 Maintenance 10 points mandatory  £800 if the migrant is applying from inside the UK  £800 if the migrant is applying from outside the UK And  £533 for each dependent 10 10 10 English Language Skills 10 points mandatory If the migrant is a national of a majority English speaking country Or If the migrant has passed an English language test Or If the migrant has a degree taught in English 10 In order to be eligible to apply under certain categories of the Points Based System, the applicant must have a sponsor which is on the UKBA register of sponsors. The register of sponsorsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ lists all organisations that the UK Border Agency has licensed to employ migrant workers or sponsor migrant students. On 31st of March, 2009, the register of sponsors replaced the register of education and training providers published by the Department for Innovation, Universities Skills (previously by the Department for Education and Skills).[2] Under the points-based system, if you are an employer or education provider who wants to act as a sponsor, you will need a licence. When you get a licence, you are added to the register of sponsors. The register of sponsorsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ lists the name, location and sponsor rating of every registered organisation. Only certain organisations/employers can be eligible for licences. Licences can only be applied for if:- The potential sponsor is a legitimate organisation working within the law in the UK. There are no reasons to believe that the potential sponsor is a threat to immigration control. The organisation will meet its sponsorship duties.[3] These criteria are to ensure that those working or studying in the UK do so legally. If the potential sponsor is awarded a sponsor licence, they will be given a sponsor rating this will be an A rating or a B rating, and will be listed on the register. Instead of an A or B rating, Tier 4 (General) sponsors can apply for a Highly Trusted sponsor licence. CONCLUSION The concept of a points-based system has its virtues, but the system now today is in name only. The priority for some years has been to establish a complex instrument of control and this has been made worse by the Coalition governmentà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s drive to curtail migration which caused the end of the few remaining elements of flexibility. There is a contradiction between the avowed intention to à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"make migration workà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ for Britain, and the submission of applications to enter for work, study, business, or cultural exchange to an unresponsive and rigid decision-making process. It suggests a narrow vision of policy that is tied to short-term political calculations, a preoccupation with control, and administrative convenience. This is arguably inappropriate as regards economic migration but is surely even more so when applied to students, travellers, artists, academics, and sportspeople who wish to spend time in the UK, exchanging ideas and developing ties whose benefits may be intangible but are vital and long term. REFERENCES Anon., 2006. UN International migration report 2006. a global assessment. Anon., 2009. UNDP Development Report 2009. Overcoming Barriers:humnan mobility and development. A Points-Based System: Making Migration Work for Britain (https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads//6741.pdf) https://www.gov.uk/uk-visa-sponsorship-employers Shachar, A., 2006. the race for talent. highly skilled migrants and compepitive immigrations regimes. www.ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk/pointscalculator [1] www.ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk/pointscalculator [2] https://www.gov.uk/uk-visa-sponsorship-employers [3] www.ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk/pointscalculator